Sunday, January 12, 2020

Virgin Atlantic Airways Case Study

Critically assess how the organisation has employed e-business technologies to perform its key business processes and improve service levels for its customers To begin with, the online e-business model of Virgin Atlantic Airways is a business to consumer as the Virgin Atlantic Airways sells plane tickets directly to customers without passing intermediaries. Virgin Atlantic Airways implements the e business technologies to perform its key business processes and improve service levels for its customers by improving reservation online, provide all convenient services, flight data , route, cost saving ,more flight and news update and promotion. Reservation Online System First of all, Virgin Atlantic Airways (2012) stated that the reservation online enhance booking system and increase sales. This is because it is convenient for passengers to check dates and flight. No matters where passenger live, they can reserve online and make a payment directly to Virgin Atlantic Airways through credit cards. Secondly reservation online provide all level of services. So passengers can select the service to suit their need. Virgin Atlantic Airways provide services such as economy class, premium economy class as well as upper class. Convenient. B2C or Business direct to customer is quite convenient and efficient with airline business (Kotler, 2008) . This reduces the need of sell agents as intermediary. As a result of this, Virgin Atlantic Airways can sell plane ticket at a lower price. Furthermore, e-business technology can increase foreign passengers through Virgin Atlantic Airways booking system. This is because foreign passengers can check the route , flight data and prices to compare with other airline. However, if they find Virgin Atlantic Airways suit their need more , they will book directly with Virgin Atlantic Airways. Flight Data E-business technologies make a flight data more accurate and fast due to, the system is operated by computer. To demonstrate this, if one passenger book the plane ticket the system will show the seats availability left and if one change his or her mind by cancellation the system will responds very quick. Route E-business technologies could perform its key business processes and improve service levels for passengers by showing the flight route and provide alternative route for passengers to select. Therefore, passengers have varies option to pick the most convenient route and economical route. For a long flight, sometime passengers can pick an economical flight by choosing the flight that transfer at other airport or require couples stop. This enhance customers base and flight booking system. More Flight Virgin Atlantic Airways (2012) mentioned that online system can enhance more flight. This is due to if any flight or route is popular due to high demand or season factors. The system will suggests to possibility to increase more flight . Therefore, Virgin Atlantic Airways revenue and profit will rise as Virgin Atlantic can serve more demand. Cost Saving Cost saving is one of major key success of Virgin Atlantic Airways (Kotler, 2008) . The e business online system can save the cost effectively as there is less need for sell agents and intermediary . Also, the e-business system can manage ticket price effectively as well. This is because if the fuel price and tax price change , the system will adjust the selling price of plane ticket instantly. E –business system which is a computer system require less staffs working. Therefore, the system can save hiring cost. News update and Promotion. Virgin Atlantic website shows all news and promotion update. This is a fast way to communicate directly to passengers and it is quick because the company can just update instantly. This benefits both passengers and the Virgin Atlantic company due to passengers can compare the airways promotion with other airways or decide to purchase the promotion that suit their need instantly.

Saturday, January 4, 2020

Memorandum Company Law - Free Essay Example

Sample details Pages: 8 Words: 2397 Downloads: 2 Date added: 2017/06/26 Category Law Essay Type Analytical essay Did you like this example? In the past a Memorandum of Association was seen as vital in providing information relating to the external affairs of a company. The importance of this document diminished over time with legal developments. Its worth will be limited further in consequence of the Companies Act 2006 content. Discuss the accuracy of the above statement and analyse why the importance of the Memorandum of Association has diminished. The most comprehensive review of British company law ever to have been made began in March 1998 when the Department for Trade and Industry (DTI) set up an independent Steering Group which carried out what was formally known as the Company Law Review (CLR). The task of the CLR was to develop a simple, modern, efficient and cost effective framework for carrying out business activity in Britain for the twenty-first century. (Palmer, 2006: 48) One of the most interesting aspects of British company law that the Steering Group had to deal with was the f act that most of the law came from the middle of the nineteenth century and had developed very specifically to meet the demands of companies and business at that time. The law had failed to keep pace with changes in the economy and in society in the intervening years. Even in the past forty years, since 1962 when the Jenkins Committee carried out the last thorough review of company law, the business world had changed beyond recognition. With globalisation, the UK had to remain competitive in all fields and the complexity and overregulation of company law was a significant disadvantage to British Companies. The Government also recognised that the UK competed with other legal jurisdictions to attract companies and incorporations, especially large public corporations. An efficient company law would make the UK a more attractive jurisdiction in which new companies could incorporate. The CLR therefore vowed to bring forward proposals of a modern law for the modern world. (HMSO, 1998: cl. 2.1) This is the context in which the Memorandum of Association will be explored in this paper. The very fact that the Memorandum exists implies that at one point it must have been important. Under section 2 of the Companies Act 1985 the Memorandum was required to contain a statement of the companys name, the location of its registered office, a description of the companys objects, and details relating to the capital of the company including whether it was limited by shares or by guarantee, who the guarantors were if any and the amount they were liable for, or details of the various classes of share, their value, and who the subscribers were. There is little doubt that such details are still important and require to be disclosed. However, the Companies Act 2006 significantly curtails what is to be disclosed in a companys Memorandum of Association. Under section 8 of the 2006 Act the Memorandum must disclose that the subscribers wish to form a company, become its members, and if t here is a share capital, that they will be shareholders. There will be a prescribed form which the Memorandum will take, which will be determined by the Government. In effect, the Memorandum of Association is being reduced to a standard form that details the type of company that has been created. It will not contain any of the specific provisions relating to the company in particular (HMSO, 1998). All the information mentioned above that was required by section 2 of the 1985 Act has been dispensed with, at least on an initial reading of section 8. Before looking at where and how such information will be disclosed in future, it is necessary to look in more detail at the pre-2006 Act Memorandum and the information it contained. The information traditionally contained in the Memorandum has been described as the fundamental provisions of the companys constitution (Pennington, 2001: 3). As mentioned above, there were certain items that were required by statute to be mentioned in th e Memorandum. However, companies were also free to add other provisions of the companys constitution to the Memorandum. Anything that might be dealt with in the Articles of Association could just as validly be placed in the Memorandum. Because of the public nature of the Memorandum, adding such extra clauses would have served to announce more publicly that certain provisions of the constitution were vital or central to the company and its identity more strongly than if they had simply been left to the Articles. Tables B, C, D, E and F of the Companies Act 1985 set out standard form Memoranda which companies should strive to use insofar as it is possible or practical to do so. However, if the members felt that the prescribed Memoranda did not achieve what they desired for their company they were free to alter them as necessary. The case of Gaiman v National Association for Mental Health [1971] Ch 317is authority for the fact that where the contents of a companys constitutional doc uments differ radically from the prescribed forms set out in the Act, or even where they conflict with the prescribed forms, they are still valid. This usually applies in relation to the Articles of Association because of the requirement to list certain particulars in the Memorandum. However, it also applies to the objects clause and any additional clauses that may be added to the Memorandum. Section 2(1) of the 1985 Act required the Memorandum to disclose the name of the company. The name identified whether the company was a public limited company or a private limited company. The choice of name is restricted by certain statutes but apart from these limited restrictions the promoters of the company are free to choose any name. Choice of name is also restricted by the common law tort of passing off, which prevents companies from benefiting from the name or goodwill of another company. Under the 2006 Act, much of the basic information formerly included in the Memorandum will in stead be set out in a simple registration document. Section 9(1) of the Act states the requirement that the Memorandum of Association be accompanied with the registration document when the company is being founded and this document, under section 9(2)(a) will include the proposed name of the company. Under section 9(2)(c) the registration document will also state whether the liability of the members of the company is to be limited and if so, whether it is to be limited by shares or by guarantee and under section 9(2)(d) it will also disclose whether the company is to be a private or a public company. Traditionally these were also clauses that were set out in the Memorandum of Association. As has been mentioned above, clarity and simplicity were two of the most important objectives of the CLR and it was felt that by stating this information clearly in registration documents was more logical and straightforward than having the information permanently embedded in the constitution of the company. The Memorandum was a document that retained importance throughout the life of the company and anyone who had an interest in the company had to examine carefully its contents. However, much of the information contained in the Memorandum would not have had any relevance or meaning during the course of the companys life and is in fact only relevant at the moment of its creation. With the introduction of the registration documents the information that is predominantly relevant only at the creation of the company is therefore removed from the constitution of the company. The same is true of the information relating to the registered office of the company. Under section 9(2)(b) this is now to be included in the registration document rather than in the Memorandum. A similar approach has been adopted with the capital arrangements for the company, which were also traditionally contained within the Memorandum. Section 9(4) sets out that the registration documents must state i f the company is going to have a share capital, how much that capital is going to be and who the shareholders are going to be. If the company is going to be limited by guarantee then a statement of the guarantee must be included, and the companys initial officers are also disclosed. Since the capital arrangements of the company are likely to change over the course of its lifetime it is again unnecessary in most cases to know what the capital arrangements were at the moment of incorporation. The movement of such important details from the Memorandum also reflects the ease with which such information as the name of the company, its type, and its capital arrangements can now be obtained from Companies House. Obtaining such information from Companies House has become standard practice and no one would rely on the Memorandum to give an accurate or up to date view of such information. It is also more reliable to obtain such documents from Companies House (HMSO, 1998). Traditionally, one of the most important and most interesting elements of the Memorandum of Association was the companys objects clause. This was required under section 3(1) of the Companies Act 1985. The objects clause sets out the scope of activity that the company can engage in and the purposes that the company was set up to achieve. A company and its directors are only authorised to engage in activities that are set out in the objects clause. Any activity that the directors engage in that is outside the scope of the objects clause is ultra vires. In the past this was seen as an important means for members to keep control of the directors. If directors acted ultra vires then the members could seek an injunction in court that would prevent them from doing so. Transactions entered into which were ultra vires could even be voided by the court even if the third party was unaware of fact. This position was modified by sections 35, 35A and 35B of the Companies Act 1985 which provided that third part ies could not be prejudiced by the fact that the directors acted ultra vires. Another important consequence of acting ultra vires is that it makes directors personally liable to the company for any transactions that are entered into which are ultra vires. While it is important that directors remain within the limits of what they have been employed to do, it was also the case that the directors of most companies are diligent and honest and would not wittingly act ultra vires. However, because of the danger of becoming personally liable for ultra vires acts, the principle created difficult compliance costs as directors sought to have objects clauses drafted so wide as to be completely meaningless and also had to seek legal advice before entering certain transactions to ensure that such transactions would not attach personal liability to the directors (Pennington, 2001: 14). In fact, an entire legal industry had developed that concentrated solely in avoiding the implications of t he ultra vires rule and narrow objects clauses. Many company objects clauses included a power to do all such other things as are incidental or conducive to the attainment of the above objects or any of them. While it was hoped that this would protect the directrors from personal liability, the court in Evans v Brunner, Mond Co [1921] 1 Ch 359 at 364 found that it did not widen the objects of the company beyond the specific objects that were set out in the objects clause and was therefore ineffectual. Another paragraph that received attention from the courts is the objects set out in any paragraph of this clause shall not be in any way limited by reference to or inference from the terms of any other paragraph or by the name of the company. The intention of this paragraph was to make each part of the objects clause a separate stand alone power that would act as if it were the dominant or main aim of the company. In the case of Cotman v Brougham [1918] AC 514 the House of Lords fou nd that this could be effective in preventing objects clauses from being read in light of the main aims of the company, however, in Re Introductions Ltd, v National Provincial Bank [1968] 2 All ER 1221 it was found that if the clause itself implied that it was ancillary or dependent on other clauses than it would be read restrictively. The fact that such cases are held as so important shows how vital the question was to companies and how much of an issue the law had become. For this reason, it was decided that the law should be changed. Firstly, the objects of the company are now regarded as a purely internal matter of interest only to the companys members and directors and will not affect the companys relations with third parties. Also, under section 31(1) of the 2006 Act the objects clause is deemed to be unrestricted unless a companys articles specifically restrict the objects of the company. This saves the formality and effort that usually goes into drafting a limitless objec ts clause that only serves to lengthen the companys constitution and make relevant provisions less clear. It also allows for the flexibility of restricting objects clauses in the less common situations when this is necessary. In conclusion therefore, it can be seen that much of the information that was traditionally contained in the Memorandum is in fact relevant only at the moment of incorporation and the new law therefore rightly requires that it be disclosed in a registration document rather than in a Constitutional document. The law has also removed the need for an objects clause in most cases and if one is necessary, it can be contained in the Articles. Because the ultra vires rule will not void transactions with bona fide third parties the objects clause is no longer relevant to the general public and therefore has rightly been moved to the Articles. The Memorandum has become redundant for almost all purposes and therefore now exists in its abridged form which serves the ne eds of todays companies without adding meaningless and unnecessary details to the constitution of the company. Bibliography Palmers Company Law Annotated Guide to the Companies Act 2006, Thompson, Sweet and Maxwell, London, 2007, page 48 Modern Company Law for a Competitive Economy, HMSO, 1998, cl.2.1 available online at https://www.berr.gov.uk/files/file23283.pdf, accessed 1.11.07 Pennington, Penningtons Company Law, 8th ed., Butterworths, London, 2001, page 3 Cases Evans v Brunner, Mond Co [1921] 1 Ch 359 at 364 Gaiman v National Association for Mental Health [1971] Ch 317, [1970] 2 All ER 362 Cotman v Brougham [1918] AC 514 Re Introductions Ltd, v National Provincial Bank [1968] 2 All ER 1221 Legislation Companies Act 1985 Companies Act 2006 Don’t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Memorandum Company Law" essay for you Create order

Friday, December 27, 2019

Hamlet Characters Descriptions and Analysis

Most of the characters in Hamlet are citizens of Denmark and members of the royal court, reeling after the death of their king. The characters are deeply suspicious of one another, as it becomes clear that the king may have been murdered—and by his brother Claudius no less. As Hamlet is a tragedy, each character carries within themselves a tragic characteristic that contributes to their own downfall. But it is in particular the unstable atmosphere of the new court of Claudius that brings about much of the action of the play. Hamlet The protagonist of the tragedy, Hamlet is a beloved prince and a thoughtful, melancholy young man. Distraught by his father’s death, Hamlet is only made more depressed by his uncle Claudius’ succession to the throne and his subsequent marriage to his mother. When the ghost of the king, Hamlet’s father, tells him that he was murdered by his brother Claudius and that Hamlet must avenge him, Hamlet becomes almost suicidal and obsessed with revenge. He is slowly driven mad by his inability to act on this instruction. Very intelligent, Hamlet decides to fake madness in order to fool his uncle and those loyal to him while he uncovers whether Claudius is guilty for his father’s death—although often his mental health is genuinely in question. Worried about his own guilt, Hamlet also becomes hateful, despising his uncle, voicing anger at his mother, frustrated with his traitorous friends, and alienating Ophelia (whom he once courted). His anger borders on ruthlessness, and he is responsible for numerous deaths throughout the play, but he never loses his reflective and melancholy traits. Claudius Claudius, the plays antagonist, is the king of Denmark and Hamlet’s uncle. According to the ghost of Hamlet’s father, Claudius is his killer. When we are first introduced to Claudius, he scolds Hamlet for still being so glum about his father’s death and forbids him to return to his university studies in Wittenberg. Claudius is a conniving strategist who poisoned his own brother in cold blood. He remains calculating and unloving throughout the play, driven by his ambition and lust. When he realizes that Hamlet is not mad as he originally believed, and in fact poses a threat to his crown, Claudius quickly begins to plot Hamlets death. This plan ultimately leads to Claudius’s death at Hamlet’s hands at the end of the play. However, Claudius also has an honorable side. When Hamlet has a traveling troupe put on a play for the court that emulates the murder of a king, Claudius reveals his sense of guilt. He also decides to have Ophelia buried with ceremony, rather than as a suicide. His love for Gertrude also seems sincere. Polonius Polonius is the main advisor to the king, also known as the Lord Chamberlain. Pompous and arrogant, Polonius is also the overbearing father of Ophelia and Laertes. As Laertes sets off for France to continue his studies, Polonius gives him paradoxical advice, including the famous quotation, to thine own self be true†Ã¢â‚¬â€an ironic line from a man who cannot keep his advice consistent. When Hamlet goes to his mother’s bedchamber, attempting to confront her about his father’s murder, he kills Polonius, who is hiding behind a tapestry and whom Hamlet mistakes for the king. Ophelia Ophelia is Polonius’s daughter and Hamlet’s lover. She is obedient, agreeing not to see Hamlet anymore at her fathers suggestion and spying on Hamlet when asked by Claudius. She believes that Hamlet loves her, despite his inconsistent courtship, and is devastated during a conversation in which he seems not to love her at all. When Hamlet kills her father, Ophelia goes mad and drowns in the river. Whether this is a suicide is left ambiguous. Ophelia is feminine and almost maidenly throughout the play, though she is able to counter Hamlet’s wit. Gertrude Gertrude is the queen of Denmark and Hamlet’s mother. She was originally married to Hamlet’s father, the dead king, but has now married the new king Claudius, her former brother-in-law. Gertrudes son Hamlet regards her with suspicion, wondering whether she had a hand in his father’s murder. Gertrude is rather weak and unable to match wits in an argument, but her love for her son remains strong. She also enjoys the physical aspects of her marriage to Claudius—a point that disturbs Hamlet. After the sword fight between Hamlet and Laertes, Gertrude drinks the poisoned goblet meant for Hamlet and dies. Horatio Horatio is Hamlet’s best friend and confidant. He is cautious, scholarly, and a good man, known for giving sound advice. As Hamlet lies dying at the end of the play, Horatio considers suicide, but Hamlet convinces him to live on to tell the story. Laertes Laertes is Polonius’s son and Ophelia’s brother, as well as a clear foil to Hamlet. Where Hamlet is contemplative and frozen by emotions, Laertes is reactive and quick to action. When he hears of his father’s death, Laertes is ready to raise a rebellion against Claudius, but his sister’s madness allows Claudius to convince him Hamlet is at fault. Unlike Hamlet, Laertes will stop at nothing for revenge. At the end of the play, Hamlet kills Laertes; as he lays dying, Laertes admits to Claudius’s plot to kill Hamlet. Fortinbras Fortinbras is the prince of neighboring Norway. His father was killed by Hamlet’s father, and Fortinbras is looking for revenge. Fortinbras arrives in Denmark just as the climax is reached. At Hamlet’s recommendation and due to a distant connection, Fortinbras becomes the next king of Denmark. The Ghost The ghost claims to be Hamlet’s dead father, the former king of Denmark (also named Hamlet). He appears as a ghost in the first scenes of the play, informing Hamlet and others that he was murdered by his brother Claudius, who poured poison into his ear while he slept. The Ghost is responsible for the action of the play, but its origins are unclear. Hamlet worries that this specter might be sent by the devil to incite him to murder, but the mystery is never solved. Rosencrantz Guildenstern Rosencrantz and Guildenstern are two acquaintances of Hamlet who are asked to spy on the young prince in order to figure out the cause of his madness. Both are rather spineless and obedient—Rosencrantz moreso than Guildenstern—and neither is intelligent enough to really fool Hamlet. After Hamlet kills Polonius, Rosencrantz and Guildenstern accompany him to England. They have secret orders from the king of England to behead Hamlet on arrival, but the ship is attacked by pirates, and when Rosencrantz and Guildenstern arrive in England, their heads are chopped off instead.

Thursday, December 19, 2019

Pascal, The Founder Of The Pascal s Wager - 899 Words

Blaise Pascal was the founder of the Pascal’s Wager. Pascal was a French philosopher, an inventor, a mathematician, a scientist and a theologian. Pascal extended a reason to believe in God, even though other people had beliefs that God is not real and his existence is not inconceivable. The Pascal’s Wager was a second-person communication. It showed that Pascal conceptualizes an individual forced to decide between the belief in God and not to believe in him. An example of what Pascal would demonstrate this as if, one was in a coin toss game, one side you conclude to believe and the other side you don’t. There are different outcome each time you play and there are different circumstances that can affect the outcome. There are a few possible outcomes are the following. You bet that he does exist, the outcome is he does, that s an infinite gain for you. You bet that he exists, the outcome is he doesn’t, that’s an infinite loss for you. You bet that he does not exist and the outcome is he does, that’s an infinite loss for you. You bet that He does not exist, and the outcome he doesn’t, that’s an infinite gain for you. Pascal claimed betting on his existence was irrational. That if you bet on the existence of God that there stands of an infinite reward (gain) that he does exist that can be represented by an eternity in paradise, and the uncertainty of a miniature risk that can be represented by whatever physically causes your happiness would waive during your life. AShow MoreRelatedCompilation of Mathematicians and Their Contributions11615 Words   |  47 PagesBirthdate: 424/423 B.C. Died: 348/347 B.C. Nationality: Greek Contributions: * He helped to distinguish between  pure  and  applied mathematics  by widening the gap between arithmetic, now called  number theory  and logistic, now called  arithmetic. * Founder of the  Academy  in  Athens, the first institution of higher learning in the  Western world. It provided a comprehensive curriculum, including such subjects as astronomy, biology, mathematics, political theory, and philosophy. * Helped to lay the foundations

Wednesday, December 11, 2019

Discussion on Healthcare Information and Management Systems Society

Question: Describe about the "Healthcare Information and Management Systems Society". Answer: Introduction The business report will deal with HIMSS and its importance in health care sector. It will demonstrate that how HIMSS will be helpful in the implementation of electronic medical record system. The author will discuss the critical success factor of this scheme. The report will contain the detailed analysis of the current situation of the health informatics in Metro Hospital. Based on this analysis the practices required to implement efficient information management system will be discussed. Further, the report will present the HIMSS EMR Adoption Model and its implementation plan. The author will brief project governance and its alignment with state and national eHealth programs. Risk factors and the likelihood of success will be stated in brief. Finally, based on the analysis and discussion conclusion will be drawn. Background HIMSS is a U.S. based organization, and it stands for Healthcare Information and Management Systems Society (Brown et al., 2012). Its ultimate goal is to establish a proper system for managing healthcare related information. To implement electronic health records, a hospital must acquire HIMSS Level 7 recognition (Custis et al., 2016). When a hospital receives a score of 7 from HIMSS, it implies that it has well adopted the Electronic Medical Records Model (EMR). It also indicates that the organization uses optimal management systems and Information Technology (Craven et al., 2015). Physicians, insurance companies, and other medical professionals maintain the medical records of patients in digital format instead of the traditional paper-based method. It includes patients history and other health information. These records are called EMR (Shah et al., 2016). The EMR system helps in easy retrieval of the clinical records and efficient navigation with patients (Brown et al., 2012). This report will thus function as the roadmap for Metro Hospital to achieve HIMSS level EMR. Vision for the Electronic Medical Records The vision of this report is to improve the service system and management of the Metro Hospital so that it can attain HIMSS level 7 by the year 2025. The report will act as the roadmap for serving this purpose. By adopting the EMR model, a hospital will thus help in improving the client services and its efficiency by decreasing medical errors (Fossum Moe, 2013). It will enhance its result management. The improved results will be proliferated with the quick access to the contemporary practices. Further, this project will offer orderly and layered onscreen presentation. It will present coding concepts clearly and other medical information through browsing (Dixon et al., 2013). For attaining HIMSS level 7 by the year 2025, the first step for the hospital is to participate in the Annual HIMSS Analytics Study and receive the EMRAM Score. The implemented EMR system After implementing the vision of adopting the EMR model, the hospitals will be able to provide integrated clinical information (Ong, 2014). It will help medical professors in speeding up their services while decreasing the medical errors. It will have increased revenue cycle as it will significantly reduce the operations costs (Xue et al., 2012). The implemented EMR system will integrate the medical data in the comprehensive format including such as weight, age, medication and allergies, laboratory tests, radiology images, medical history, billing information, demographics, vital signs and immunization status (Warner et al., 2012). This process will increase the number of clients served each day. This process of electronic documentation will improve billing system (Shah et al., 2016). Since the EMR will not include any paper work, the chance of documentation error will decrease to a great extent. Therefore, EMR system will offer the hospital a better environment with the seamless flow of information (Wang et al., 2013). In this digital progress, the way of care delivered is entirely transformed. With EMR, information can be retrieved anywhere and anytime. It will improve the communication system of Metro Hospital with other departments (oncology, ophthalmology, maternity, etc.) in the healthcare network through this electronic transaction. This will enable coordination in decision making and care provided. It will allow improved patient diagnostics and health outcomes (Fossum Moe, 2013). Critical success factors- The first and the foremost step for implementing EMR model is to convert the traditional paper based system into electronic automated environment (Ong, 2014). Before implementation, the staff, physicians, and other medical professionals should be well adapted with the latest technology and must be aware of real time quality information (Ong, 2014). The other critical factor is that the hospital must increase its capital resources for increased expectations (Murray Wright, 2014). It is necessary for the hospital to develop good staff capacity. It will help to cope up with the cultural changes and emerging needs of the organization. It will ensure customer and staff satisfaction (Valdez et al., 2015). The critical success factor for this hospital lies in the team commitment. The hospital must design the effective plan for sustainable changes, implement efficiently, and improve the methodology (Paton, 2014). To ensure that all the departments have incorporated best practices, these sustainable processes must be redesigned and regularly measured (Dixon et al., 2013). To save time in the manual filling of charts and their retrieval, the physical environment must be renovated and remodeled (Paton, 2014). To have an optimal workflow, the satellite area must be decommissioned. The other critical factor is the maintaining the confidentiality of patients health information (Nambisan et al., 2015). Also, implementing EMR will enable Metro to link with international patients (Wang et al., 2013). With improved coordination, it will be easy for patients in other states to involve in academic research or participate in clinical trials (Mastellos et al., 2015). Analyzing the current situation and aspects critical to support EMR Currently, Metro Hospital must work hard towards attaining technological tools, enhancing the safety and quality of health services. Strategic management of electronic information will enable HIMSS EMR Adoption Model by 2025. Analysis of current situation of Metro Hospital includes if the organization can serve a large number of patients. Currently, in the hospital the system of services is entirely paper based, Therefore, changing this into computerized version (electronic transition) is the crucial factor. All its clinical information must be digitalized (Valdez et al., 2015). The hospital currently implementing the care facilities and other operations are ineffective. Therefore, it must use its functionality in a provision of safe, efficient and effective care services for its patients (Hersh, 2014). This analysis in part is required to determine the contemporary status of Informatics in Metro Hospital. It is necessary to measure if Metro can incur the cost of adopting the electronic Medical records system (Murray Wright, 2014). It is essential to assess if the process in the first step exceeds the estimated budget. If so then the cost must be adjusted for subsequent stages despite the auditing event (Dixon et al., 2013). The analysis also includes the review of EMR in fulfilling its purpose and assesses the frame of time (Valdez et al., 2015). Analysis of current situation of Metro Hospital includes assessment of hospitals component deployment and understanding of the short-term goals of the organization. The study showed that the hospital has good connections with medical professionals, which are not linked electronically (Fossum Moe, 2013). Therefore, these exercises must be fulfilled first. The method of searching the electronic records manually must be replaced with the computer search. Metro needs to practice decreasing the time spent on manual process and serving the patients and save its resources (Valdez et al., 2015). These measures will determine the factor of benefit in implementing EMR (Nambisan et al., 2015). The Metro hospital team should be aware of the management practices newly implemented to run EMR. Regulatory bodies must set guidelines and legislations for taking patient's consent before the accession and saving their information in EHRs/EMRs (Custis et al., 2016). There must be stringent rules for maintaining the confidentiality of the patient's records and there shall be no integrity issues (Brown et al., 2012). Roadmap for achieving HIMSS level 7 by 2025 To achieve HIMSS level 7 by 2025, there are several stages to be followed by the Metro hospital. In stage 0- the hospital must install radiology, laboratory, and pharmacy department systems, as already there is some clinical automation present (Valdez et al., 2015). In stage one, Metro must be ensured that these ancillary systems store the data into Clinical Data Repository including those of imaging systems for quick retrieval by the medical staff (Fossum Moe, 2013). In this stage, all the three systems will be installed and next to it Controlled Medical Vocabulary Clinical Data Repository and the CDSS inference engine will "Document Imaging". In this second stage, clinical documentation is must while the electronic Medication Administration Record care plan charting and nursing notes are integrated and implemented with the CDR and are scored with extra points (Brown et al., 2012). At the initial level, it is also necessary to build the support system to check order entry errors in pharmacy services (Murray Wright, 2014). During the third stage, the medical personnel confined to the radiology department should have the accession to hospitals intranet (Valdez et al., 2015). In the fourth stage, any medical professional of Metro hospital using the Computerized Physician/Practitioner Order Entry will be updated with CDR (Paton, 2014). During the fifth stage; Patient care services require close administration, bar coding, and Radio Frequency Identification (Dixon et al., 2013). It will improve the quality and safety of care services. Sixthly, there will be the complete documentation of one of the hospital department. The clinical actions of the physicians and used protocols will be verified for its "compliance and variance alerts (Schirmer et al., 2013). Finally, its the GO live! situation by 2025, where it is ensured that the hospital has established the EMR environment. The hospital at this stage is paperless, and the transactions are electronic based. There will be a proper dissemination of information among different departments and medical staff. At this stage, the HCO will support the actual HER (Koch, 2013). At the executive level, there should be an implementation of a strategic plan. According to (Brown et al., 2012) A governance structure should also be build to facilitate decision making, accountability, prioritization and management which include a user-focused comprehensive plan which deals with informing people how to handle change. Therefore, there should be a governance structure along with the working committee that will facilitate the management, prioritization, decision making and accountability (Yawen et al., 2016). To embark this long journey to reach the destination of level 7 by 2025 the business process requires stretching its goals and balancing the needs (Mastellos et al., 2015). The processing in the executive engagement may take three years, and that of the process measurement may comprise of two years. Establishment of the IT infrastructure consumes another two years. The whole executive team should be supportive and committed towards the goal (Valdez et al., 2015). The hospital must demonstrate the data agility before the implementation. Metro must take preventive actions before the stakeholders get disengaged and the whole project comes to a stall. Metro must foresee the incremental benefits arising with the implementation of EMR. To become fully digital, the entire process must take around ten years of time (Nambisan et al., 2015). Implementation Plan The implementation plan for the Metro Hospital will include: Purpose, current analysis of hospital, overview of management Implementation schedule Security and privacy system during implementation IT resources, documentation and required personnel Training of personnel, monitoring of performance, and evaluation configuration management interface and site requirement details (Bissett et al., 2016) Additional resources for the implementation of EMR are: Citrix technology for accession by users in the hospital and other remote areas through wireless technology such as smartphones, tablets (Xue et al., 2012). The hospital requires proper allocation of funds and minimize overspending of funds and resources (Hersh Valerius, 2013). To achieve the fully digital status by 2025, there are series of stages to be passed by the hospital. There are many hurdles to be overcome during the implementation journey. One of the critical steps is the proper planning of HER and its acquisition (Fossum Moe, 2013). The assessment and evaluation of medical process follow this critical step. "E-communication patient providers and portals" will help in supporting the documentation (Wang et al., 2013). The final implementation of the EMR/EHR will make the electronic system for Metro legal by 2025. Thus, the goal of attaining the automatic status will be accomplished by the establishment of EMR successfully along with the incorporation of automation and Information Technology (Valdez et al., 2015). Therefore, there will be increased improvement in care delivered to the patients (Custis et al., 2016). Once fully EHR system is implemented Metro hospital will become a place with improved applications, documentation by automation and coding resulting in speedy billing services. This will decrease the medical errors as it will improve the collaboration process between the patients and physicians (Mastellos et al., 2015). It increases the opportunities for students willing to participate in clinical trials and other academic research (Hung et al., 2013). As a result of a big channel that Metro hospital has, with well-qualified practitioners, further implementing EMR provide the hospital with the global environment. It can easily connect with its international patients who will also get feasibility to shop the procedures (Nambisan et al., 2015). Governance This is an essential step during an implementation of HIMSS EMR Adoption Model by 2025. Two committees will govern this whole process in Metro hospital. One is the IT Committee" and other is "departments affected by the EMR-EHR. Clinical staff and other members engaged in this process directly or indirectly must abide by the rules and guidelines and aware of their individual responsibilities (Craven et al., 2015). All the members will be involved in the decision-making. According to Schirmer et al., (2013), Governance arrangements should include all the agency lines of accountability and reporting coupled with the relevant executive committees and agency boards in the hospital. The governance of the project will ensure that all the services in an attempt of HIMSS EMR Adoption Model are delivered. To assess the success of the implementation project separate governing bodies of Metro must well collaborate with each other. Regular conferences will be held in Metro to check the progress, address the emerging problems and update the whole project (Yawen et al., 2016). Likelihood of success and identification of risk I believe that Metro hospital will be successful in achieving HIMSS EMR Adoption Model level 7 by 2025. It is due to the staff committed towards the organizational goals. There will be some hindrance initially, due to the difficulty faced by the practitioners in being accustomed to the use of health information technology (Murray Wright, 2014). The other risk factors are the maladaptive behavior of insiders and lack of policy awareness. The health information may be leaked to the third parties by increasing cybercrime (hacking, electronic mail phishing, and social media) (Hung et al., 2013). It may turn disastrous for the hospitals reputation. Therefore, the hospital must be prepared with data recovery policies and weak disaster recovery plans (Mastellos et al., 2015). The use of benchmark metrics is necessary for obtaining more than comparative information by the usability ratings. For every scenario, the clinical environment for the end users must be assessed. Further, the users actual performances against the perceived ideal performance will be compared to generate a target score to upgrade the user requirements. This will enhance the present performance of EMR system (Nambisan et al., 2015). Recommendations For adopting the model of HIMSS EMR by 2025, Metro needs to be assessed for its barriers and risk factors. The ability to bring about significant change or transformation from manual method to electronic based clinical transactions will provide the hospital with the range of benefits and opportunities (Hung et al., 2013). The changes will be reflected at both population level and individual level. The success rate of EMR-EHR will correlate with the input given by the departments engaged in the process as well as on the quality of care (Paton, 2014). It is recommended that the committees governing the implementations of the EMR should be respected for their contribution. It is through them that the ideas, criticisms, suggestions are provided by the stakeholders (Murray Wright, 2014). There should be timely monitoring and evaluation of the strategies used in adopting the EMR-HER system to make sure that expectations are met, and the improved healthcare practices are upheld (Craven et al., 2015). It is suggested that the hospital must demonstrate the data agility before the implementation. Metro must take preventive actions before the stakeholders get disengaged and the whole project comes to a stall. Metro must foresee the incremental benefits arising with the implementation of EMR. Conclusion Based on the above discussion it can be inferred that, adopting the EMR model, a hospital will thus help in improving the client services and its efficiency by decreasing medical errors (Fossum Moe, 2013). It will enhance its result management. The improved results will be proliferated with the quick access to the contemporary practices. The business report has dealt with HIMSS and its importance in health care sector. It demonstrated how HIMSS would be helpful in the implementation of electronic medical record system. The report has clearly stated the critical success factor of this scheme. The report detailed the analysis of the current situation of the health informatics in Metro Hospital. Based on this analysis the practices required to implement efficient information management system were easy to discuss. Further, the report has given a systematic presentation of HIMSS EMR Adoption Model and its implementation plan. The author discussed project governance and its alignment with state and national eHealth programs. Conclusively, the report has given me a clear concept on what is EMR and its importance in the health sector and how difficult it is in real to adopt such model in the hospital. References Bissett, K., Cadena, J., Khan, M., Kuhlman, C. J., Lewis, B., Telionis, P. A. (2016, February). An integrated agent-based approach for modeling disease spread in large populations to support health informatics. In2016 IEEE-EMBS International Conference on Biomedical and Health Informatics (BHI)(pp. 629-632). IEEE. Brown, G. D., Patrick, T. B., Pasupathy, K. S. (2012).Health informatics: a systems perspective. Health Administration Press. Craven, C. K., Doebbeling, B., Furniss, D., Holden, R. J., Lau, F., Novak, L. L. (2015). Evidence-based Health Informatics Frameworks for Applied Use.Studies in health technology and informatics,222, 77-89. Custis, L. M., Hawkins, S. Y., Thomason, T. R. (2016). An innovative capstone health care informatics clinical residency: Interprofessional team collaboration.Health informatics journal, 1460458215627188. Dixon, B. E., Pina, J., Kharrazi, H., Gharghabi, F., Richards, J. (2015). Whats Past Is Prologue: A Scoping Review of Recent Public Health and Global Health Informatics Literature.Online journal of public health informatics,7(2). Dixon, B. E., Turner, A. M., Pina, J., Kharrazi, H., Richards, J. (2013). Public and Global Health Informatics Year in Review. InAMIA. Fossum, M., Moe, C. E. (2013, August). Masterand# 8217; s Program in Health Informatics at University of Agder. InScandinavian Conference on Health Informatics 2013; Copenhagen; Denmark; August 20; 2013(No. 091, pp. 87-88). Linkping University Electronic Press. Gibson, C. J., Dixon, B. E., Abrams, K. (2015). Convergent evolution of health information management and health informatics.Applied clinical informatics,6(1), 163-184. Hersh, W. B., Valerius, J. (2013). A tale of two professions health information management and biomedical/health informatics converge at OHSU.Journal of the American Health Information Management Association,84(10), 37-41. Hersh, W. R. (2014). Context and Value of Biomedical and Health Informatics. InPublic Health Informatics and Information Systems(pp. 37-46). Springer London. Hung, M., Conrad, J., Hon, S. D., Cheng, C., Franklin, J. D., Tang, P. (2013). Uncovering patterns of technology use in consumer health informatics.Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Computational Statistics,5(6), 432-447. Koch, S. (2013). Achieving holistic health for the individual through person-centered collaborative care supported by informatics.Healthcare informatics research,19(1), 3-8. Mastellos, N., Car, J., Majeed, A., Aylin, P. (2015). INNOVATION IN HEALTH INFORMATICS.Journal of Innovation in Health Informatics Vol,22(1). Murray, P. J., Wright, G. (2014). Towards a Research Agenda for Web 2.0 and Social Media in Health and Informatics.Ghanaian Population. Debrah O, Srofenyo E, Aryee NA, Quaye IK............. 77, 89. Nambisan, P., Luo, Z., Kapoor, A., Patrick, T. B., Cisler, R. A. (2015, January). Social Media, Big Data, and Public Health Informatics: Ruminating Behavior of Depression Revealed through Twitter. InSystem Sciences (HICSS), 2015 48th Hawaii International Conference on(pp. 2906-2913). IEEE. Ong, K. (2014). Health Informatics Defined.Physician Informatics Community. Paton, C. (2014). Massive open online course for health informatics education.Healthcare informatics research,20(2), 81-87. Schirmer, P., Winston, C., Ryono, R., Lucero-Obusan, C., Oda, G., Holodniy, M. (2013). Online Journal of Public Health Informatics, Vol 5, No 1 (2013).Online Journal of Public Health Informatics,5(1). Shah, G. H., Leider, J. P., Castrucci, B. C., Williams, K. S., Luo, H. (2016). Characteristics of Local Health Departments Associated with Implementation of Electronic Health Records and Other Informatics Systems.Public Health Reports,131(2). Valdez, R. S., Holden, R. J., Novak, L. L., Veinot, T. C. (2015). Technical infrastructure implications of the patient work framework.Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association,22(e1), e213-e215. Wang, Y., Wu, Y., Wilson, R. F., Bleich, S., Cheskin, L., Weston, C., ... Segal, J. (2013). Childhood obesity prevention programs: comparative effectiveness review and meta-analysis. Warner, H. R., Sorenson, D. K., Bouhaddou, O. (2012).Knowledge engineering in health informatics. Springer Science Business Media. Xue, L., Yen, C. C., Chang, L., Chan, H. C., Tai, B. C., Tan, S. B., ... Choolani, M. (2012). An exploratory study of ageing women's perception on access to health informatics via a mobile phone-based intervention.International journal of medical informatics,81(9), 637-648. Yawen, Y., Nakamura, M., Nakashima, N. (2016). Designing Health Data Management Systems: Learning From Prominent Worldwide Applications.Journal of Health Medical Informatics,2016.

Tuesday, December 3, 2019

WHY DID YOU DO IT HUCK Essays - Picaresque Novels, Huckleberry Finn

WHY DID YOU DO IT HUCK? A young boy by the name of Huck Finn fakes his death to escape imprisonment from his father. Huck has left his hometown in horror after his brutal death. The small Illinois town has been in search for the killers of this young boy too long to be happy with the death being a decoy. Throughout this detailed article, the USA Today is proud to give you, the reader, a detailed explanation of Huck's planning, executing, and ending to his fake death. The once imprisoned boy ends up running across the country. This whole event began one spring day while Huck is living with Widow Douglas. His drunk and abusive father, Pap, ends Huck's stay with the widow and kidnaps Huck. Pap then takes his ?civilized? son three miles up and across the river to a heavily woody area. In the woods is a cabin where nobody could find it. This is where Pap makes Huck his prisoner. Pap would lock the cabins only door and keep the key with him at all times. Pap would make Huck fish and hunt for their food. Then Pap would get valuables, lock up Huck, and then sell the goods in town for alcohol. Huck's clothes became torn and ragged after not receiving any new clothing from Pap. The only reason Pap wants to have Huck is so that he will gain custody of, and the money that is in his sons name. After a trip Pap made to town, which lasted three days, Huck searched the entire cabin over a hundred times for a way out of the cabin. Then before losing all hope Huck finds a small wood saw. Huck then used the saw on the bott om rear log of the cabin. But before Huck could finish, Pap returns from his trip. Huck's plan becomes uneasy when Pap says that he will probably move Huck to a more secluded spot along the river. Huck devises a new plan to ?walk off with the gun and some lines, and take to the woods when I run away. I guess I wouldn't stay in one place, but just tramp across the country, mostly night times, and hunt and fish to keep me alive, and so get so far away that the old man and the widow couldn't ever find me any more?(Chap.6). Huck plans on leaving that night, but falls into a deep sleep. The next day Huck plans on Pap getting drunk, allowing Huck to escape. Huck will escape when his father falls asleep, giving Huck time to steal the cabin key and run away without being noticed. But before this occurs, Huck once again falls asleep. Then suddenly, Huck wakes up to Pap screaming about snakes and attempting to kill ?The Angel of Death? ? Huck. ?He chased me round and round the place with a clasp knife, calling me the Angel of Death, and saying he would kill me?(Chap.6). Huck is now scared, so he grabs the gun and points it at Pap until Pap settles down. The next day when Huck is to go fish, he discovers an empty canoe. Huck hides the canoe, in hope to use it in his escape. ?I judged I'd hide her good, and then ?stead of taking the woods when I run off, I'd go down the river about fifty mile and camp in one place for good, and not have such a rough time on foot?(Chap.7). Huck now has a new plan so that ?nobody won't think of following me.? While Pap leaves on a trip to town, Huck finishes sawing the log in the back of the cabin, and succeeds. Huck gathers up all the supplies he will need on his trip. These supplies include: corn meal, bacon, the whiskey jug, coffee, sugar, the gun, ammunition, the wadding, a bucket and gourd, dipper and tin cup, the saw and two blankets, a skillet, fish lines, and matches. Huck fixes the log so that the cabin looks untouched. Before Huck leaves, he hunts one more time for some food. He finds some wild pigs and gets an idea. Huck takes the dead pig up to the cabin. This is where huck

Wednesday, November 27, 2019

The Formula One Constructors free essay sample

The Formula One constructors Mark Jenkins 1. Introduction This case enables students to explore sources of competitive advantage using the context of Formula One (F1) motorsport. The case highlights the ways in which three particular F1 teams created four situations of competitive dominance for a sustained period. It allows the students to consider individual teams and the generic issues needed to succeed in this specialised context. The case is organised into five parts. The first is a brief overview designed to give those unfamiliar with F1 some understanding of its history and structure.This is followed by four detailed descriptions of particular periods of dominance by an F1 team. The introduction to the case describes the overall nature of Formula One motorsport and its origins in Europe after World War II. It identifies some of the central aspects of being an F1 constructor, such as the need to generate sponsor revenues through increasingly sophisticated marketing strategies, and also the need to design, develop, manufacture and race open-wheel single-seat racecars. We will write a custom essay sample on The Formula One Constructors or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Note: the term ‘constructor’ differentiates F1 from other racing series in which race teams compete with bought-in racecars.F1 constructors are effectively in the business of designing and constructing prototypes – each car being unique to each constructor but within a set of pre-defined rules that cover weight, dimensions and other basic parameters. The introduction also makes reference to the nature of the motorsport cluster in the UK, a phenomenon similar to that of Silicon Valley in California. In 2004, seven of the ten F1 teams were located within this specialised cluster, located roughly within a 50 mile (80 km) radius of Oxford.This provides an opportunity to connect to issues of location and national/regional competitive advantage. This is followed by four accounts of sustained competitive advantage (here we define sustained as three or four years of dominance) featuring Ferrari in the mid-1970s, McLaren in the late 1980s, Williams in the mid-1990s and Ferrari from 1999–2003. Each account explores the background to the constructor, from the formation of these entrepreneurial businesses through to their development into a world-class rganisation. The focus is on the build-up to their period of competitive advantage, but each case also then relates to the loss of the advantage for the constructor in this period, with the exception of the final case where the discussion may usefully be directed as to what may cause the loss of competitive advantage. 231 Â © Pearso n Education Limited 2005 Instructor’s Manual 2. Position of the case This case can be used to explore the issues raised by the resource-based view of strategy. It provides a basis for students to develop causal linkages between particular resources and their effect on achieving competitive advantage. The context particularly emphasises the relative nature of competitive advantage, i. e. that the resource-based view requires a constant reference to the resources and competence of competitors in order to define competitive advantage. These issues are examined in Exploring Corporate Strategy, chapters 3 and 5. The case was designed to be used on an MBA programme where students consider the application of the resource-based view in order to ‘unpack’ sources of advantage.The case has also been successfully used on final-year undergraduate programmes and also for executive development in helping managers explore the nature and location of sources of advantage. 3. Learning objectives The overall learning objectives can be summarised as follows: To understand that although strategy can be seen as generic at a high level, it will always be idiosyncratic at the organisational level, even where organisations are in the same industry and all have the same goal.Therefore strategic management has to focus on the idiosyncratic characteristics of every organisation in order to develop a strategy that will work in this context. Strategies that are based on highly mobile resources (e. g. individual drivers, designers or engine suppliers) need to focus either on finding ways of locking in these resources, or on building competence to allow them to continually find and acquire new ones. While highly complex and idiosyncratic resources are particularly difficult to imitate (e. g. Ferrari) they are also difficult to manage and vulnerable to changes in the environment or a loss in any of the elements.Sustained advantage is often achieved through the linkages between resources rather than the resources themselves (e. g. the way the drivers link in to the design engineers). A shift in the environment can suddenly change the value of particular resources; an external view is therefore fundamental to sustaining advantage. It can also raise the point that advantage can be created by luck: a fortuitous combination of resources or a lucky event in the environment. This can be used to develop the debate about whether managers influence strategy or just post-rationalise their luck in strategic terms. 32 Â © Pearson Education Limited 2005 1. 2. 3. What do you need in order to succeed in Formula One? Why do you think your team were successful during this period? Why were they unable to sustain this success? What could they have done to sustain their success further? Instructor’s Manual 4. Teaching process There are a number of different ways in which the case can be used. It works particularly well in situations where the participants spend some time in group work before discussing the cases, such as on an MBA programme. The usual way to apply the case would be to allocate separate syndicate groups to consider one of the four accounts of competitive advantage. A series of questions are used to guide the way in which the students approach the case. The recommended approach is to start with each syndicate presenting their responses to the case questions (see below). At the end of each syndicate the instructor would summarise the key points on the board, under four columns, one for each account of sustained competitive advantage. As each group presents, the instructor will finish up with a quite distinctive set of key words under each.This enables the session to move on to the learning points. The way this is handled will depend on learning maturity, but it is best to simply ask the plenary session what similarities and differences they see between the four accounts. Put these up on the board/OHP and then go on to ask what conclusions they would draw from these. This will take the discussion into the notion that while at a high level strategy might be generic, at a management level it is highly idiosyncratic and context specific. 5. Questions for discussion 6. Case analysisThis section offers a number of suggestions for discussing the above questions and exploring related issues. 6. 1 What do you need in order to succeed in Formula One? This question is intended to get the students to identify the generic model needed to succeed in this industry. At a very simplistic level this can be described as having unique resources such as the best driver, the best car (achieved by bringing together the chassis design and engine technology) and the best supporting team, which provides race tactics, pit stops, etc.All of this is supported by finance, which comes from the ability to attract and retain sponsors (this is less important for Ferrari, who are owned by Fiat). This discussion can be developed by discussion as to what ‘best’ means and how 233 Â © Pearson Education Limited 2005 Instructor’s Manual this is created. It raises issues about separating the causes for success from the effects of success: is Ron Dennis the cause of success for McLaren? Or is this a perception created by the fact that he happens to manage a successful team? 6. Why do you think your team were successful during this period? We now move from the generic level of success to consider the specifics of each team. The issues raised will be attributed to personalities, but will also be about the ways in which different teams approach the task of winning the championship. Ferrari and their renaissance in the mid 1970s Ferrari were successful because everything worked together. While they have always had a huge wealth of technical expertise and resources, the problem has been getting this to work together.In the past this had been exacerbated by the ‘divide and rule’ style of Enzo Ferrari. This working together was exemplified in the relationship between three key individuals: driver Niki Lauda, designer Mauro Forghieri and team manager Luca Montezemolo. The other reason for Ferrari’s success was that because they had their own unique approach (e. g. they built their own engines and gearboxes) it was very difficult for other competitors to imitate them, as they did not have access to the same technology as Ferrari. McLaren and Honda domination in the late 1980sMcLaren were successful because they were able to put together the best of everything. They secured exclusive use of the Honda engine at a time when it was the most powerful and reliable; they were also able to secure the services of the best drivers around (Senna and Prost). This was due to the high level of funds made available by sponsor Philip Morris. Another issue that often comes up is the commercial and leadership skills of Ron Dennis. An interesting area for discussion here is their decision to recruit the two best drivers.Was this a good idea or did it create more problems than benefits? It raises the question of locking in resources not just to maximise your performance, but also to deny your competitors access to them. Williams and the technological revolution: the mid 1990s Williams’ success was due to their engineering focus, which enabled them to take many of the innovations developed by other teams and turn these into a car that was both fast and very reliable. This engineering focus can be attributed to the long-standing partnership of Frank Wil liams and Patrick Head. Williams were notable in their disregard for drivers and their attention to building a wide-ranging relationship with their engine supplier Renault. 234 Â © Pearson Education Limited 2005 Instructor’s Manual This discussion raises issue around the different choices which firms have in terms of the kinds of resources on which they focus. From one aspect Williams’ strategy makes a great deal of sense in that they are more able to appropriate the benefit of engineering resources, whereas driver resources are highly mobile.Ferrari: the return to glory: 1999–2003 This account is in marked contrast to the Williams approach in that Ferrari based their resource strategy primarily around driver Michael Schumacher. The usual conclusion here is that it is all down to Schumacher, but closer examination reveals this not to be the case. Whilst Schumacher was undoubtedly a key element in the success, he probably would not have achieved it without the rebuilding of the technica l team and their close partnership with Bridgestone tyres.An interesting area for discussion is to compare how Ferrari’s success in this period is different from the previous period. This draws out the importance of being able to implement change as being a key part of competitive success. 6. 3 Why were they unable to sustain this success? What could they have done to sustain their success further? Here the students will focus on the reason why the advantage was removed. This also allows them to consider whether or not anything could have been done to prevent this loss of advantage.Ferrari and their renaissance in the mid 1970s The reason for Ferrari’s loss of advantage can be isolated into two factors: first, the discontinuity created by the promotion of Montezemolo to head up the whole of Fiat’s motorsport operation, and Lauda’s accident, which took him out of racing for around six months. Second, Ferrari’s unique approach constrained them in terms of responding to new innovations, most notably the introduction of ground-effect, which required a slim ‘V’ configuration engine rather than Ferrari’s traditional flat 12.This raises the point about whether an organisation that does all its activity in house can keep pace with the combined efforts of the many ‘generic’ suppliers used by the other teams. McLaren and Honda domination in the late 1980s The reasons for McLaren’s demise were very simple. Honda pulled out of Formula One. This in turn broke the virtuous circle that attracted the best drivers, and Ayrton Senna moved to Williams.This raised the question of what value McLaren themselves generated, as the key to success seemed clearly to reside in Honda engines and the skills of Ayrton Senna, both of which were relatively mobile resources. 235 Â © Pearson Education Limited 2005 Instructor’s Manual In terms of what they could have done, there is certainly evidence to suggest that McLaren chief Ron Dennis should have considered the possibility of a Honda withdrawal more seriously. It illustrates how phenomenal success can blind management to the possibility of change. Williams and the technological revolution: the mid 1990sIn the case of Williams, their advantage was eroded through a series of events: first the loss of exclusive access to the Renault engine when Renault decided to provide engines to the Benetton team; second, the leakage of some of their know-how through their junior designers moving to other teams – mainly because they would be unable to gain a senior position in Williams as long as Patrick Head was there; and third the recruitment of superior drivers (specifically Michael Schumacher to Benetton) leading to the Williams car’s advantage being eroded. However, it could also be argued that Williams were still in a position to dominate. When Michael Schumacher left Benetton to join Ferrari the Benetton team failed to sustain their advantage, and Williams once again became dominant. A discussion could be developed around some of these issues. Ferrari: the return to glory: 1999–2003 At the time of writing Ferrari are still enjoying a period of unparalleled dominance. The question therefore needs to be amended to consider the factors which might create a loss of dominance and also how they would deal with this in a strategic sense.The most obvious factor is the retirement of Michael Schumacher: it is possible that when he leaves many of the key people around him may also take the opportunity to move on whilst their employment value is very high – or alternatively take early retirement to enjoy the fruits of their labours. There are some potential parallels with Ferrari’s loss of success at the end of the 1970s with some of the key people being promoted to other roles. In 2004 Luca di Montezemolo became chairman of Fiat and Jean Todt became CEO for the entire Ferrari operation – including the 3500 people who work on road cars. It is an interesting discussion to explore the problem of succession in high performing organisations and whether it is in fact possible to sustain performance at all in the long run and that firms benefit from a period of regeneration and regrouping. 236 Â © Pearson Education Limited 2005